For centuries, self-sufficient agricultural societies had been zero waste by nature. This sustainable cycle broke when artificial materials,  such as plastic packaging, began conquering the market. As the world’s fastest-urbanizing continent, Africa has encountered major challenges in implementing a sound solid waste management system, struggling with lack of political will and institutional framework as well as limited finance and infrastructure. The media and some international institutions including the UN Environment Program have repeteadly promoted waste incineration in Africa, without ackowledging incineration’s harmful impact on human health and the environment. What are the facts about the trash incinerators behing the PR of “Waste-to-Energy”?